Tabletop Zoetrope

The English vowels /ee/ as in “he” could have been taught by employing Zoetropes to animate the standard mouth positions associated with this vowel. Zoetropes could have been used in China during this period to suggest a link between Victorian high-technology (animation) and language standardization.
Tabletop zoetrop as displayed at the University of Oklahoma Bizzell Memorial Library during Academic year 2017-2018